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Black and Tan Pomeranians
With some additional information about Sables, Parti-colours and Tri-colours
Written and researched by Vivienne Peterson B.A. / Compiled by Vycki Brock Copyright May 2010


****UPDATES - made to this page are in dark red so you can find them easily *******

Although black and tan Pomeranians have a world- wide following and are shown on an equal basis in America and Canada and all FCI regulated countries including the Republic of Ireland, they remain a bone of contention in the UK, where the Breed Standard has designated them as ‘highly undesirable’ since January 1986. Prior to this, as of December 10th 1909, Poms with tan markings were deemed to be ‘decidedly objectionable’ with the added comment they should be discouraged. 

Investigating the past in order to understand why an original admissible colour from 1892 to 1909 fell from favour has unearthed some rather unusual information. 

* Breeders did not fully comprehend the genetics of colour and patterns.
* Some colour definitions were at one time other than what they came to mean later.
* Black and tan Poms were successfully shown after the 1909 Standard revision.
* Examples of them were deleted in the 1929 revision of Lilla Ives book. Their value in colour breeding programmes was deleted in a 1937 revision of Mrs Parker's book
* Model King, black and tan born 1910, was passed off as a black in a 1937 book.
* Financial motive to promote whole coloured and shaded sable Poms?
* The Pomeranian Club’s ‘Winans Cup’ for parti’s, tri’s and hound marked Poms.


It’s a lengthy story but hopefully you will find it interesting. 


Evidence of some Pom history ‘white washing’ as the breed developed 

It may seem extraordinary but there is no doubt that by 1929 certain aspects of the development of the Pomeranian in Britain were either modified or deleted. This came to light when reading the 1st (1911) and 3rd (1919) edition of Miss Ives’ book ‘Show Pomeranians’ and comparing this to Mrs Thomson’s revision of Miss Ives book in 1929. Just as all mention of Colour Dilution Alopecia in the blue colour was removed in 1929 (along with 3 pages of invaluable information about blue Poms provided by Ives) successful black and tans shown after the 1909 Standard revision were also edited out.

Miss Ives (Pomeria) became interested in Poms in 1894 and was the foremost specialist of blue Pomeranians. Discussing the 1909 Standard revision in her book she talked of breeders who had “moved with the times” and were influential in recent changes made to the Standard. Interestingly she was most concerned with an accurate description of the desirable harsh top coat, weight divisions, the concept of reliable ‘quality stock’ for breeding purposes and the removal of the ‘stop’– thought to be an obsolete description sanctioned by the old Standard and associated with round heads and larger round eyes. (Still absent from the UK Standard)

Regrettably – Mrs Thomson also distanced the breed from its recent German ancestry by deleting Miss Ives information about the frequent importation of small specimens form the Mannheim & Stuttgart area in the 1890s. 

Mrs Thomson’s kennel name Lochryan was established in 1920 and by 1929 she was the President of The South of England Pomeranian Club. By 1929 Miss Ives was dead as was Miss Hamilton, the long time President of The Pomeranian Club whose smaller white Poms noted in earlier editions of the book were now criticised by Mrs Thomson. However, despite deleting historical examples she did confirm that black and tan Poms were apparently still, albeit rarely, seen on the show bench – despite the objectionable and discouraging sentiments in effect since 1909.

By 1919 Miss Ives identified three black and tan Pomeranians she had seen and liked,  – Queen of May, Home Farm Mite and The Microbe. All Mrs Thomson had to say was black and tans were ‘rarely seen on the show bench, but those that have been shown were remarkably good in type and coat. The colour is unpopular.’

Sadly invaluable advice given by Mrs Parker in 'The Popular Pomeranian' published in 1929 regarding colour breeding was also severely edited in the 2nd edition of her book. Mrs Elsie Parker (1861 – 1930) was the first Secretary of the Midland Counties Pomeranian Club founded in 1908 leaving this post in 1910. She was the Secretary of The Pomeranian Club from 1920 to 1928 inclusive. Mrs Parker's book was revised after her death by Miss Wilson of Dara Pomeranians in 1937. Miss Wilson was the Secretary of the South of England Pomeranian Club from 1938 - 1942.

Mrs Parker wrote about the invaluable contribution of black and tan Poms in orange and shaded sable breeding programmes! Mrs Parker's Ch Mars was the pillar of the breed for the colour orange - so it is reasonable to assume she knew a thing or two about breeding good oranges. Mrs Parker was a superstar in a generation devoted to colour breeding - it is important to heed her advice and respect her viewpoints. Mrs Parker's views will be appear in full later on in this article.

………. And then there’s the strange case of Model King

Miss Wilson of Dara Poms revised Mrs Parker’s book ‘The Popular Pomeranian’ in 1937.  Model King, born 1910, was registered as ‘black and tan’ in the 1913 Stud Book. He was shown in the same class as other black and tan Poms – ‘any other colour’ – and he was an important dog for Harold Young the son of the founder of Erimus Kennel. Mrs Parker considered Model King to be one of the original 14 pillars of the breed. 

Miss Wilson referred to Model King on page 27 but did not mention his colour. Worse still a photograph appears of Model King on page 25 (right) and his markings have been darkened so that he appears to be a black Pom. As Dara Poms had Erimus ancestry - did Miss Wilson prefer this fact to be consigned to the attic? 

Look at Model King’s registration in the 1913 Stud Book stating he was ‘black and tan’ and compare this to the photograph of him in Mrs Parker’s book.

Therefore, some black and tans were shown after the 1909 revision had called them ‘decidedly objectionable’ and in fact one breeder placed a rather large advert promoting one a full year later in December 1910. Mrs Hooton proudly extolled the virtues of her lovely 10 years old Ch Crimbles Duke in an Our Dogs advert. She also promoted his black and tan son ‘Bit of Class’ as a big winner (see left photo), available at stud and if bred to orange bitches he’d produce orange sables - his son ‘All Class’ had already won 12 first prizes at 3 shows.

Lady Wentworth 

This seems an appropriate point to introduce The Rt. Hon. Mrs Neville Lytton, Lady Wentworth into the equation. In 1911 she penned ‘Toy Dogs and their Ancestors’ and caused a sensation. Lady Wentworth was somewhat of a ‘loose cannon’ – she confessed to not belonging to any Breed Club ‘ so I owe no allegiance to anybody’ and noted people who criticised the ways of the dog fancy ‘ are put into Coventry and good-bye to all hope of winning with their dogs’.  

She has, however, left historians with an invaluable and enlightening insight into the Edwardian show scene otherwise rarely mentioned in literature of the day. The first observation of hers relevant to this study is this – ‘ the Club Standards appear sometimes to be framed merely on the fancy of their founders or to suit a prevalent type, being based on no historical evidence whatever – the historical evidence in some cases being diametrically opposed to the Club Standards’.

Lady Wentworth was against the removal of ‘the stop’ and here we find a hint of ‘to suit the fancy of their founders’ she spoke about. Miss Ives was President of The North of England Pomeranian Club ranked second to The Pomeranian Club – presided over by Miss Hamilton (Rozelle). There can be no doubt about it these ladies preferred the overall head points of the larger Poms – just look at Ch Boy Blue or Ch Rob of Rozelle.

So now it’s worth considering later if the colour section and ‘adding great weight against’ a colour was motivated by personal taste or any other factor. 


… first some information about the development of the Pomeranian Breed Standard


Black and tan was one of the original ‘colours’ in the first full Pomeranian Breed Standard of 1892. Here are some highlights from various Standards.

From 1892 to 1901 -The following colours are admissible. White, black, blue, brown, black and tan, fawn, sable, red and parti -colours. 

In 1901  - The following colours are admissible – white, black, blue or grey, brown, sable or shaded sable (including red, orange or fawn) and parti-colours. 

Black and tan, although omitted from colour list was still in the equation as it was referred to in the required nose pigment for the breed.

From 1892 to 1909 Nose – In black, black and tan, or white dogs the nose should be black; in other coloured Pomeranians it may more often be brown or liver-coloured, but in all cases the nose must be self, not parti-coloured, and never white. 

In 1906 - The following colours are admissible – white, black, blue or grey, brown, sable, shaded sable, red, orange, fawn and parti-colours.

*In 1909 the Standard began ‘ All whole colours are admissible’…. it then states ‘at present the whole coloured dogs are – white, black, frown –light or dark, blue as pale as possible, orange which should be deep and even in colour as possible, beaver and cream which should have black noses and black rims around the eyes.’ At present implied more colours may be added as the breed developed.

Excluded from the list of ‘whole colours’ were dogs with white or tan markings – now deemed to be ‘decidedly objectionable and should be discouraged’, dogs with white or tan chest, feet and legs also shaded sables and parti-colours.

A salient point is that prior to 1909 the Standard had used the terms ‘objectionable and should be discouraged’ before and made it clear although frowned upon this did not necessarily disqualify a dog. There have never been any disqualifying colours or patterns in the UK Breed Standard. 

1892 – 1898 ‘ a few white hairs in any self-colours shall not disqualify, but should be discouraged’.

1898 – 1909 ‘ a few white hairs on a whole coloured dog, shall not absolutely disqualify, but should carry great weight against the dog’ 

1898 - 1909 ‘ Whole-coloured dogs, with a white foot or feet, leg or legs, are decidedly objectionable, and should be discouraged, and cannot compete as whole coloured specimens’.

1906 – 1909 ‘Oranges must be self coloured throughout, and light shading, though not disqualifying, should be discouraged’.

A clause added in 1901 ‘ a dog with white feet or chest would not be a parti-colour dog’ was modified in 1909 to ‘ a dog with white or tan feet or chest would not be a parti-coloured dog’ - is still in today’s UK Standard. 

An exception to the rule – Mafeking of Rozelle 



Another sentiment expressed in 1898, and still in the UK Breed Standard, was that judges should give preference ‘if in other points they are equal’ to whole coloured dogs over parti-coloured Poms in mixed classes.

Despite this clause tri-coloured Mafeking of Rozelle (left) bred and owned by Miss Hamilton the President of the Pomeranian Club (1891 – 1919) was the Cruft’s CC winner in 1904 over all under 8lb Poms of any colour entered at the show. 


It may surprise many of you to know that Mafeking was the winner of Open Dog (Any other colour) and Limit Dog (Any other Colour) and in both classes he defeated the famous Ch The Sable Mite!

Mafeking was usually called a parti-colour but in fact he was a tri-colour and was registered as one. He was white, black and sable (sable meaning orangey brown of which more will be explained later) –this also illustrates the original term parti-colour included tri-colours.

Note – the most common parti-colour was black and white, then chocolate and white and later blue and white – after orange was developed some were orange and white. Mr Hicks in 1906 recommended people look at Mafeking of Rozelle, Shelton Novelty (black & white) and Magpie - below right (black and white) as good examples of parti-coloured dogs. In 1911, 1916 & 1919 Miss Ives’ book lumps together parti-colours, tri-colours and black and tans in her section on parti- colours as did Mrs Thom

Mafeking would no doubt have been a contender for the Pomeranian Club’s Winan’s Cup for the best Parti-coloured, Tri-coloured, or Hound-marked Pomeranian’.

 Mr Winan, a member of the Kennel Club (very few were) owned a cream Pom called Café au Lait exhibited before cream was in the Standard.

The Pomeranian Club held its first show in 1907 and in that year and in 1908 provided a class for ‘ Parti-colour - Black and white - black, sable and white – sable and white well broken’ an ideal class for Winans Cup hopefuls.

Hound marked Poms may well have had one or more tan legs so could have been borne in mind in the 1909 Standard revision.

Some general information about colours in this era 

Quite a variety of colours and patterns had popped up between 1898 & 1909. So Club members had lots to think about. A founding member in 1891, Mrs E. J Thomas, had registered and successfully shown two brindle Poms in 1899 and brindles were noted at LKA shows. Mr Mappin, quoted in 1907, commented ‘ orange shaded sables, a most inexplicable colour, which no one but their owner can define; and, last but most difficult of all to tabulate, brindle shaded sables’. 

It was his view that creams, fawns, beavers, orange shaded sables, brindle shaded sables, ‘ should be classified with the parti-coloured and should be entered at the class provided for them at every show, viz., that for ‘any other colour’.

Poms were very fashionable in the early 1900s attracting many fanciers because of their colour and small size. It was once said ladies owned a Pom of every shade to match their gowns. Interesting colours recorded in the KC Stud Books (but not mentioned in the Standard) pre- 1910 included brindle, racoon sable, dove, smoke blue, chocolate, red chocolate, slate grey, grey sable, wolf colour, brindle sable, fawn and silver, chocolate and brown, lemon and white, chocolate and white, black and sable, black and yellow, blue and sable, grey and white and various degrees of mis- marks for example – black, white spot on chest white tips to 3 feet. And over in America by 1921 they even had blue mottled Poms.

It would be fair to say the Pomeranian Club had an enormous challenge when devising a standard to accommodate not only a great variation in size – Pomeranians meaning dogs over 7lb in weight after 1909 and Miniature Pomeranians under 7lb – but also all the colours and variations appearing.

Now we should consider the limitations of understanding the inheritance and genetics of coat colour in this age.

Mr Theo Marples (circa 1907) noted Mendelian principles were not applied and it was by crossing certain colours and observing the results breeders found they could produce some colours ‘at will’. 

Evidence the black and tan pattern was not clearly understood comes from an otherwise highly knowledgeable author Rawdon Lee. In 1894 he wrote about a black and tan Chow- Chow he had owned ‘ he was an exceptionally typical specimen, whether this colour was the result of crossing the black and the red I do not know, but as I have been frequently asked my experience of breeding colours together, I may say here that I have found the puppies come either a distinct red or black’.

C.J. Davies’ book of 1929 The Theory and Practise of Breeding to Type and its Application (page 60) has numerous examples of colours in Pom litters. He noted a pure white bred to a pure black produced 3 black and tan, 2 fawn and several shaded sables of the primitive brindle type. He quoted Castle’s view that black and tan was a black dog plus a colour pattern and noted the yellow factor in the white dog contributed to the pattern in the above example. He does not have any examples of this colour union resulting in parti-coloured dogs but his thoughts confirm the use of the term ‘pattern’ by 1929. 

Mrs Parker’s influential book ‘The Popular Pomeranian’ was revised by Miss Wilson (Dara) in 1937 it stated – ‘Blacks, whites, and oranges inter-bred produce blues, wolf sables and parti-colours’.  Miss Wilson had been in the breed for at least 20 years and it was her view (in 1937) parti-colours were not sports, as thought by Mrs Thomson in 1929, but to be expected when combining those strains of colour. 

Returning now to black and tan and tan pointed dogs it may be a little clearer that although some colours could be bred ‘at will’ others could not. With the benefit of hindsight it would in fact be some years before anyone understood the genetics of recessive coat patterns like black and tan.

Black and Tan was also called Black and Sable 


As stated earlier Miss Ives had noted three black and tan Poms she had seen and liked.

Look at the extract from the 3rd edition of Miss Ives book (left)– as you can see Queen of May is described as ‘a very small black-and-tan, exceptionally pretty, headed her classes for a little while, then, she, too, died.’ And here is her Stud Book entry in 1909 where she is registered as ‘black and sable’

After the standard revision people continued to show and win with black and tan Poms and in the 1914 Stud Book entry (see below) for ‘The Microbe’ - deemed ‘ a most typical and heavily-coated black and tan ‘ he was also registered as a ‘black and sable’.

Next we have the ‘exceedingly good specimen Home Farm Mite’ he was also registered as a ‘black and sable’ in the Stud Book of 1911. 

So what was this all about?

Sable and ‘Black and Sable’ Poms 

While investigating the history of colour in Pomeranians it has become evident that the original meaning of the term ‘sable’ was not the same as the current interpretation of this colour. The 1901& 1906 Standards referred to both sable and shaded sable – conveying the idea sable and shaded sable were not always one and the same thing. As late as 1913 the N. of England Pomeranian Club had classes for ‘Sable, Shaded Sable and Orange’.

The term ‘sable’ for Pomeranians eventually came to mean black or dark brown tips on the coat of a shaded sable. But there is evidence that early Pom breeders also used sable to define a colour absent of dark hair.

(I recommend you read an excellent online article by Fred Lanting (Sirius Dog) called ‘ Sables: Genetics and Myths’ – he points out that in Collies, Basenjis and Shelties sable can refer to a reddish yellow dog (no dark tipping) and In Pembroke Welsh Corgis sable gives an ‘orange impression’. He also explains that tan in German is gelbe and that translates into English as yellow. This would explain why Mrs Hicks’ dog Thirlesmere Pickles (1905) was registered as black and yellow.

Poesy of Tytton, a Rough Collie born 1906 was registered as ‘ black, tan, and white, all sable face, left leg sable, other three white, white collar, breast, tip of tail’. Sable in this sense relates to Pom breeders describing markings on their black and tans. Other breeders simply used the term black and tan so both definitions were in use.

Ch Prairie King born 1894 was registered as ‘sable’ but identified by Miss Ives as brown, Ch Brilliant born 1893 was registered as ‘sable and white’ but later referred to as fawn by Mr Charles Lane, Brilliant’s son Park Emerald born 1896 was also registered as ‘sable and white’ but Ives called him a warm cream. 

Other variations of tan pointed dogs also occurred as in ‘black and brown’ and ‘blue and sable’. 



What marking were expected on black and tan (or black and sable) Poms?

The description of a perfect black and tan was never explained in the Pom Standard, other than it should not have white shadings (1898), so it is unclear whether they required markings comparable to the Toy Black and Tan Terrier or The King Charles Spaniel. The King Charles Standard in 1894 stated – ‘ rich, glossy black and deep tan; tan spots over the eye and on cheeks, and the usual markings on the legs are required’. There is no mention of pencil marks or thumb spots on legs as required in the Toy Black and Tan Terrier standard. The ancient name for black and tan was black and fallow indicating a yellowy brown colour.

It is important to remember that Standards up to and including the 1909 revision applied to all sizes including breeds now separately classified such as the Keeshond, German Spitz – Wolf, Gross, Mittel, Klein and the Italian Volpino. Hutchinson noted in 1935 that in the grey variety ‘black markings on the knee are called “thumbmarks”, are considered a fault, but some judges also object to black markings on the dog’s feet just above the nails, described as “smutty feet”. In fact “clear” legs and feet are preferable”. The type now known as a Keeshond (once considered, and shown as, a Pom) was acceptable in wolf grey, silver-grey, ash-grey or tawny in Europe and in the 1930 UK Standard the preferred leg colour was pale yellow (gelbe in German meant yellow or tan). With this in mind, apart from the baffling presence of these markings on wolf shaded sable dogs, it could be arguable that black markings on tan legs were undesirable and this might include tan pointed dogs.



Pomeranian Champions sired Black and tans 

Careful analysis of the pre 1915 Stud Books has revealed that famous champions were either the sire or grandsire of the majority of black and tans. In this way (with the benefit of modern colour genetics) it’s clear that tan pointed dogs are a possibility in the lines of virtually every good quality Pom from that day onwards. 

Ch Blue Boy, Ch Ruffle, Ch Nanky Poo, Ch Shelton Sable Atom, Ch The Sable Mite, Ch Dragonfly, Ch Flaming June, Ch Young Nipper, Ch Home Farm Triumph and Ch Crimbles Duke all sired black and tans. Ch St Julien exported and shown in America was also the grandsire of a black and tan in England.

Records reveal black and tan descendants of very popular non-champion stud dogs Shelton Merlin, Bayswater Swell and The Little Nipper. 

Richardson Carr of Home Farm Poms – a fan of black and tan 

Perhaps the foremost advocate of the term ‘black and sable’ was Richardson Carr of the famous Home Farm kennel - registering his first Pom of this colour in 1907 (so therefore in 1908 Stud Book) he used a version of the King Charles standard initially– ‘black, sable legs and markings’. 

Mr Carr did not personally show his Poms but acquired some of England’s top dogs and as a breeder sold them to top exhibitors who did very well. Mr Carr was the estate manager for Nathan Rothschild at Tring in Hertfordshire (a Collie and Arab horse enthusiast) – he was also one of the select few who were members of The Kennel Club. He sold his kennel and resigned from the KC in order to serve in the Medical Corps in World War One France.

As stated earlier - Home Farm Mite bred by him was called a black and tan by Miss Ives but registered by Mr Carr as black and sable so in his opinion his black and tan dogs were black and sable! 

Using this euphemism the colour pattern continued to be exhibited just as before the standard revision. After all there was no objection to the colour ‘sable’.


Financial Incentive?

Lady Wentworth mentioned powerful exhibitors who were members of specialist clubs and whose main interest was sometimes ‘to fill their own pockets’. So it’s worth considering if this could have applied in Poms while bearing in mind that she never specifically comments on any individual or particular breed club.

Lady Wentworth was of the opinion that ‘club judges are allowed no liberty of opinion’ and should they place an influential member down the line they would either be ‘severely hauled over the coals’ or never given another judging appointment. 

She felt judging in some breeds ‘has long been a perfect farce; the dealers play into one another's hands, appoint each other as judges and report on their own dogs. Could anything be worse for the improvement of our breeds of dog?’ Followed by ‘ I am afraid that a great number of judges will never be able to resist putting up their friends' dogs, the temptation is so subtle and nothing can possibly happen to them in consequence. The contempt of the people who know a good dog from a bad one is all that they have to fear, and the material advantages of being on delightfully cordial terms with their friends is generally more important to them.’

She then said ‘the club list dwindles at last to a few weak-minded toadies, who dare not go against the known wishes of their employers and don't care if they call their souls their own or not. Now this is not for the benefit of any breed.’ 

Another material advantage was of course money. Success in the show ring at that time did equate to an increase in value for the winning dogs.

In 1901 Mr Charles Lane wrote - ‘Other things being equal, the smaller the size, the more valuable they are, and high class specimens frequently change hands at prices ranging from £10 to £200, so it has lately been one of the most profitable breeds to produce, as good specimens have been commanding fair prices, and plenty of buyers were found for anything out of the common at almost any price’. He then describes trends in colour and ‘very long figures’ paid or offered for tiny blacks and browns, weighing as little as 3lb.

Robert Leighton’s book of 1921 said this of Poms ‘under careful management the commerce of buying and selling and breeding may be very profitable. A really good Pom can fetch as much as £250.’ 

Trends in colour came and went but oranges and orange shaded sables quickly became the most popular colour for decades to come. Miss Ives said shaded sables were actually unpopular until after 1901, when they entered the Breed Standard, beaver was never popular and parti-colours were not popular. Mrs Thomson thought black and tan, beaver and blue were unpopular. Breeders were keenly aware of what colour was desirable and popular and what colour was not.

So there appears to have been a strong financial incentive to promote whole colours and later shaded sables. Miss Ives’ book is full of examples of high prices obtained by British breeders from American buyers – figures often in the £150 to £200 range. New York Times reporters were equally impressed - mentioning $1200 paid for an English Pom. Some of our breeders who sold Poms to America -like Mrs Dyer- were also given judging appointments there.

The buying power of £1 in 1900 was about 65 times more than in 1999 – therefore £100 = £6,500. In America $1 in 1900 was roughly the equivalent of $25 in today’s money – so $1200 = $ 30,000. Don’t forget shipping was extra. Pretty impressive amounts! 

Mr Houlker pet-homed Ch Black Prince for the dazzling sum of £200 in the late 1890s setting the pace for Poms with some good wins fetching higher amounts. Miss Ives noted a blue called Blue Star with only two championships (old name for challenge certificates or CCs) went to America for a very high price. Mrs Dyer’s orange sable Afon Squinny had no CCs but several wins went to America for £80 (equivalent of £5200). Toy British Poms were sold to Princesses, wealthy Parisians, English aristocrats – Poms were trendy, fashionable and very desirable.

Many of the early breeders invested heavily acquiring newly imported stock or going on European buying missions personally - they kept large kennels and many employed stockmen to look after and often exhibit their dogs. Bear in mind that the average working man’s annual income in 1900 was about £55 and in America about $560 – compare this to the sale/purchase price of miniature Poms.

A dog with some wins was more valuable. Before the first Pomeranian Club show in 1907 exhibitors were often at the mercy of show organisers regarding colour classes. For example Crufts of 1905 held classes for white, black, brown, orange and any other colour.


Therefore blue, beaver, cream, sable and shaded sables were all in the ‘any other colour’ class along with black and tan and various parti-colours. A breeder of pure blues may have felt it was unfair if a randomly occurring pattern or a so-called ‘sport’ should, in mixed classes, place over a blue from a carefully managed breeding programme. This may have been why the Standard was amended – by adding great weight against them the success of tan pointed or parti-coloured dogs was lessened.

Shaded sables, although not a whole-colour, had no such modifier providing they conformed to the required 3 shades throughout rule. Enormously popular they were more profitable to breed as any whole colour could be bred to popular sable stud dogs in the hope of producing a good shaded sable. Of course any unexpected tan pointed offspring would be unwelcome and less valuable to the breeder.

Exhibitors were very competitive and beyond protecting their investment is the issue that wins translated into money. Any and all wins counted and right up until the 1960s adverts are full of wins. It is not uncommon to read of a stud dog with 300 first places for instance. So it is possible money motivated opinions on size and colour.

Above Left - Manchester Show results from 1913 showing 1st places of Black and Tan - The Microbe

Modern exhibitors may be unaware that all shows offered prize money and according to the rules found in early KC Stud Books a show could not have CCs unless the prize money was in excess of the entry fee. This money was to be £2 for first place, £1 for second place and 10/s for third place. Open shows could offer less. Many Trophies were assigned a monetary value and could be won outright – some silver ones valued as much as £25. Additionally some shows had lots of special prizes for instance at the October 1913 The North of England Pomeranian Club there were 81 extra prizes. For example - Mr Dickinson offered 5/s for the best Litter of shaded sables (yes … litters of 5 weeks to 4 months old were also exhibited) – Miss McPherson offered 10/- for best orange shaded sable bitch in Class 20 – Mrs Lindley gave 5/- to the best white dog in the show and 2/6 to best white bitch. 

At the same show Mr Mellor’s black puppy Bit-O-Style could be purchased for £100. Surprisingly - dogs could be valued in Catalogues and then sold at the show – the Club holding the show receiving a commission. If a dog did well and two people wanted to buy the exhibit an auction was held and the difference between the asking price and the catalogue price was split between the seller and the Club. This practise applied to all the Pomeranian Clubs as well as all the other clubs!

With all that in mind and by placing oneself in the pre-1915 show era it may be easier to evaluate to what degree, if any, money influenced exhibitors of the day.

Note – As late 1974 The Pomeranian Club Championship Show entry schedule had a column for “Price if for sale” – although it is unclear if commissions applied for sales at a show as in days of old. Prize money at that show was £2 for first place, £1 for second place, 50p for third place, 25p for Reserve and 15p for VHC (except for brace and veteran). The entry fee was £1 per class non-members, .75p per class for members and benching cost .35p. Among the numerous special prizes was Mrs Dyke of Hadleigh Poms prize of £1 for the 2nd place winner of Open Dog or Open Bitch. In 1975 the KC required all Gen. Championship shows to schedule shows without prize money and place this money into ‘a central account to fund the purchase of benching’. So this may possibly have marked the end of prize money for breed classes at championship shows.




Was there any other reason to discourage black and tan?

It appears there was once a belief (as expressed in 1959 by a former President of the American Pomeranian Club – Mrs Nicholas) that black and tan was rated ‘objectionable’ in order to ‘protect the lovely clear colours’. She felt black and tan Poms in a breeding programme would lead to clouding and eventual loss of colour clarity. Additionally she felt it would result in dogs being too heavily sabled and black masks and markings (shadings) on light coloured dogs. Plus the tan in a black and tan that should be a deep mahogany may lighten. Mrs Nicholas referred to the use of black and tan in the Pekingese breed to intensify mask and tippings in light colours.

Apart from the fact that what applies to one breed does not necessarily apply to another the most salient fact here is this was not Miss Ives’ viewpoint – she blamed the deterioration of whole colours between 1907 & 1911 on ALL the sable Poms!  

Miss Ives’ comments on interbreeding sables and whole colours were –‘ The indiscriminate breeding already alluded to, of which we have seen so much of late, though it may produce sables of curious, varied, and very pretty graduations of colour, is undesirable. We have seen bitches of every recognised colour paying visits to sable stud dogs – a fact which is likely to produce unsatisfactory results in time to come. ….  Very strongly do we advise breeders to keep the sound colours clear from sable mixtures’.

Miss Ives actually liked sable and shaded sable Poms -‘given a sable class well filled, the ring seems full of sunshine’ she added ‘orange shaded sables, in their bright varieties of colour that make them so popular, are sunshine itself as they trot around the ring’. Miss Ives’ beloved Ch Dragonfly was an orange shaded sable. However – she still blamed them for seriously interfering with ‘sound-colours’. 



Black and Tans valuable for breeding purposes'- quote by Mrs Parker in 1929

The above quote appears in the synopsis of Chapter V - Colour in the first edition of Mrs Parker's book. Had this extract from the original book survived the later revision by Miss Wilson, some 8 years later, then perhaps some of the doubts over this colour pattern may never have arisen in the first place. Here is what she had to say ...

" The scarcity of whites, with their massive snowy coats, the soft-toned blues and beavers, and showy parti-colours is to be deplored. Variety of colour adds to the interest of shows and the fascination of breeding. Additional to this, for some inexplicable reason, dogs of some of the least favoured colours are often of outstanding quality and type. For this reason alone the lack of support accorded them is a distinct loss to the breed as a whole. I have known black and tan Poms, that were perfect models of the breed and even now-a-days bitches of this unprepossessing colour are acknowledged as most valuable for breeding oranges and shaded sables of good type. Beautiful as our present-day orange coloureds are, how many fail in the essentials of type and coat?"


In conclusion there is no evidence (so far) to support the belief that black and tans were ‘objectionable’ because of their influence on whole colours but strong evidence that all sables and shaded sables were once considered undesirable in a whole colour breeding programmes. There is no known health problem associated with this pattern.  There is no evidence from America -where black and tan/ tan pointed Poms have been encouraged for a couple of decades - to support the fears expressed by Mrs Nicholas in 1959.

Hopefully this article will at last offer a comprehensive evaluation of the topic and if nothing else newcomers to the breed and breed fanciers may find this information helpful.

The UK Breed Standard effective January 1986 deleted  ‘decidedly objectionable and should be discouraged’ and replaced this with ‘highly undesirable’ in reference to dogs with white or tan markings other than white. This amendment and other revisions to the Standard was agreed upon by all UK Pomeranian Clubs in February 1984 – as recorded in the KC’s Kennel Gazette.



With additional pedigree information
Stud Book of 1900

Belper Jinnie +8lb bitch, sable and black, DOB 13/8/97 - breeder/Owner Miss Chell
By Bayswater Brownie (94) x Belper Queenie unr. 

Stud Book of 1902

Wyndham Rex +8lb dog, black and sable, DOB 27/8/99 – breeder/owner Mrs Oxley
By Wyndham Urchin – shaded sable (by Clayton Prince x Hutton’s Dot) x Wyndham Florette (Clayton Prince x Hutton’s Dot)

Winsome Minx +8lb bitch, brown and sable, DOB 26/10/00 - breeder Miss Hall, owner Mrs Oxley by Wyndham Rex x Gipsy unr.

Spook – 8lb dog, black and brown, DOB 29/8/00 – breeder/owner Mrs Vallance
By Ch Ruffle x Halda (by Gentleman Joe – a Blue Boy son x Rosey unr.)

Stud Book of 1903

Nell of Drury - bitch, black and fawn, DOB 26/08/01 breeder/owner Mrs L.C. Dyer
By Fighting Bobs (sable dog by Sweep x Frau Senta) x Little Viscountess (Little Viscount x Frau Gundelinde) Note – she may have been a wolf shaded sable as I have seen one other dog called ‘black and fawn’ identified as wolf sable.

Stud Book of 1904

Coln – bitch, black and sable, DOB 12/06/01 breeder Mrs Oxley Owner Mr Brooks
By Wyndham Rex x Winsome Gipsy unr. 

Stud Book of 1906

Squirrel – dog, black and tan, DOB 25/06/04 – breeder Mr Dunston owner Mrs Norris. By Ch Nanky Poo (a shaded sable by Dr Nansen x Lady Clare unr) x Sable Queenie (by Twyford Cocoa x Lady Sybil)

Stud Book of 1907

Gateacre Scamp – dog, black and tan, DOB 1/6/05 – breeder/owner Mrs Hall Walker
By Ch Shelton Sable Atom (a shaded sable by Little Nipper x Cinderella a daughter of Aigburth Prince) x Bibury Belle (a sable by King Khama x Bibury Maggie)

Thirlsmere Pickles – dog, yellow and black, DOB 24/12/05 breeder Mrs Hicks owner Miss Mandy. By Orchid x Thirlsmere Bo Peep

Stud Book of 1908

Home Farm Daisy – bitch, black, sable legs and markings, DOB 29/10/05 breeder Mrs Wearing owner Richardson Carr. By Fighting Bobs x Frau Brunhilda 

Home Farm Dolly – bitch, black and sable, DOB 19/7/05 breeder Mrs Sherlock owner Richardson Carr. By Beautiful Prince of Sables x Saucy

Home Farm Joy or Judy – bitch, black and sable, DOB 19/5/04 – breeder Mr Ray owner Richardson Carr. By Monmouth Ruffle (a golden sable grandson of Bayswater Swell) x Girlie (a granddaughter of Nubian Swell)

Stud Book of 1909 

Home Farm Daybreak – bitch, black and sable, DOB 17/5/08 - breeder Miss Collyer owner Richardson Carr. By Ch Shelton Sable Atom x Break of Dawn (a shaded sable daughter of Ch Nanky Poo x Phantom).

Home Farm Shamrock – bitch, black and sable, DOB 1/07/05 – breeder Mrs G Marshall owner Richardson Carr. By Ch The Sable Mite x Kitty Malone

Nimbus – dog, black and sable, DOB 18/10/1907 – breeder owner Miss Collyer. By Ch Shelton Sable Atom x Golden Dawn (shaded orange by Linton Cherub x Phantom bred by Mrs Thomas a shaded orange dtr of Halliford Dicksee x My Lady in White) 

Queen of May – bitch, black and sable, DOB 19/09/07 – breeder/owner Mrs Sharp. By Ch Shelton Sable Atom x Princess of the Sables by Ch Sable Mite x Kitty Malone. Referred to by Miss Ives as ‘a very small black-and-tan’ also ‘exceptionally pretty’.


Stud Book of 1910

Old Court Prince - +7lb dog, black sable, DOB 15/10/06 – breeder Miss Stanton owner Mrs MacLean. By Ch Dragonfly x Fairyland Una  Note – he was shown in parti-colour and AOC at Crufts 1909.

Portland Little Dorritt -  -7lb bitch, black and tan, DOB 1908 -breeder/owner Mrs E Faviell. By Belper Pallie (sable son of Ch Dragonfly) x Belper Connie unr.

Home Farm Fashion - -7lb bitch, black and sable, DOB 14/02/08 – breeder Mr Dunton owner Richardson Carr. By Ch. The Sable Mite x Sable Trissey

Home Farm Gloaming - -7lb bitch, blue and sable, DOB 5/10/09 – breeder/owner Richardson Carr. By Atom’s Double (shaded sable son of Ch Shelton Sable Atom) x Home Farm Daylight (a cream daughter of Ch Nanky Poo x Phantom)

Home Farm Mischief - -7lb bitch, sable and black, DOB 30/03/09 – breeder/owner Richardson Carr. By Ch Shelton Sable Atom x Home Farm Daylight

Peep-of-Dawn - -7lb dog, black and sable, DOB 9May 1908 – breeder/owner Miss Collyer.  By Ch Sable Mite x Golden Dawn – for details see Nimbus 1909

Stud Book of 1911

Home Farm Mite - -7lb dog, black and sable, DOB 23/5/08 breeder Mrs Davies owner Richardson Carr - sold to Mrs Mackay. By Ch The Sable Mite (by The Little Nipper x Laurel Fluffie) x Primula unr. Ives said’ an exceedingly good specimen’ of black and tan.

Tommy Atkins - -7lb dog, black and tan, DOB 20/11/09 breeder Mrs Parkinson owner Mrs Oldfield. By Ch Boy Blue x Erins Coronet (a Boy Blue daughter)
2nd in ‘Any other colour than white, black, shaded sable, brown, orange’ at KC Show 1910 – judge Mrs Claude Cane. The winner was blue.

Home Farm Glow - -7lb bitch, black and sable, DOB 1/7/1910 – breeder/owner Richardson Carr. By Shelton Merlin or Shelton Imp (very odd listing! Shelton Merlin was the orange sable son of Ch The Sable Mite his dam was a daughter of Ch Nanky Poo – Shelton Imp was the black son of Ch Sable Atom and a daughter of Little Nipper) x Home Farm Glitter - sable daughter of Ch Nanky Poo x Home Farm Jenny.

Home Farm Tiny - -7lb bitch, black and sable, DOB 12/5/10 - breeder/ owner R. Carr.
By Ch The Sable Mite x Home Farm Daylight 

Stud Book of 1912

Dark Dawn - +7lb dog, black and sable, DOB 17/07/10 – breeder/owner Miss Collyer. By Ch The Sable Mite x Break of Dawn

Home Farm Merlinda - -7lb bitch, black and sable, DOB 13/08/10 – breeder H Dolderfield owner Richardson Carr. By Shelton Merlin x Home Farm Dolly. Dolly, a black and sable, was the dam in 1911 of Offley Mignonette an orange shaded sable.

Stud Book of 1913

Model King - -7lb dog, black and tan, DOB 11/08/1910 breeder Mrs Rollinson owner H Young (Erimus). By Ch Young Nipper son of The Little Nipper and grandson of Ch King Pippin x Ch Queen Dinah a daughter of Ch Young Nipper x Ruby unr. 

Stud Book of 1914

Cressing Jim - +7lb dog, black and sable, DOB 18/9/12 – breeder Richardson Carr owner E Latham. By Offley Corn Cob (shaded sable bred by Richardson Carr and owned by Mrs Langton Dennis by Hazlewood King x Home Farm Merry Lass)  x Home Farm Tiny.

Home Farm Glimmer - +7lb bitch, black and sable, DOB 28/9/11 – breeder/ owner Richardson Carr. By Hazlewood King (a shaded sable bred by Mr Carr - Ch The Sable Mite x Shelton Sable Fairy) X Home Farm Glitter.

The Microbe - -7lb dog, black and sable, DOB 10/12/10 – breeder Mr Cronshaw owner Mrs Hargreaves. By Opaline (son of Little Nipper) X Doe Hill Connie unr.
Ives called him ‘ a most typical and heavily coated black-and-tan’. Two 1st places at Manchester 1913 in ‘Any colour other than black, brown, shaded sable, orange’. 

Stud Book of 1915

Archibald - +7lb dog, black and sable, DOB 3/3/14 breeder/owner Mr G. Mackay. By Ch. Home Farm Triumph (by Shelton Merlin x Home Farm Gloaming) X Miss Hopeful (Tatton Pippin x Sabie unr.) 1st place at Kensington CS in AOC under well known judge Roy Geddes.

Much Joy - -7lb bitch, black with sable markings, DOB 16/10/12 breeder/owner G Mackay. By Home Farm Mite x Much Hope unr. 2nd place at the Pom Club show of 1914 in AOC.

Stud Book of 1916

Redhill Chatelaine - +7lb bitch, black and sable, DOB 24/10/18 breeder Mrs Patten owner Mrs Langton Dennis. By Ch Home Farm Triumph x Fatima – a daughter of  Ch St Julien (later exported to USA) x Houri 

Robert - -7lb dog, black and sable, DOB 4/4/14 - breeder R Porter owner Miss McCall. By Ch Flaming June  (by Ch Young Dragon Fly x Aberdare Sable Duchess) x Fanny 

Aimster Pintail  -7lb bitch, black and sable, DOB 3/3/14 – breeder/ owner Mr Mackay. By Ch Home Farm Triumph x Miss Hopeful – litter sister of Archibald.
Placed at the Pom Club Show in 1915 under judge Mrs Langdon Dennis. Class won by a cream dog.

Stud Book of 1921 

Peggy of Dara – bitch, black and sable, DOB 17/08/1920 – breeder Mr Orton owner Miss L Wilson. By Firelight of Dara x Ormil Banshee

A known black and tan not in the Stud Book

Bit of Class – black and tan 4 lb son of Ch Crimbles Duke. Duke born in 1900 was by Tupica King, a son of Indian Prince (son of Bayswater Swell) and Duke’s dam was a granddaughter of both Nubian King & Bayswater Swell. Please note in Mrs Hooton’s advert placed a year after the Standard Revision she bragged that Bit of Class ‘ is a big winner.’



Lady Wentworth's book can be read online at the link given below. She was well known for her Toy Spaniels, titled some of her own and was a breeder, exhibitor and judge. Lady Wentworth was very supportive of the Kennel Club and has nothing but praise for the organisation. Her views on clubs, exhibitors etc. can be read in Chapter 12 page 274. Interestingly she exhibited Poms for the first time in the 1920s.The book is well worth a read and has very interesting information about breed history.

Lady Wentworth - Toydogs and their ancestors

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